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Bible Translation

The Bible has been translated into many languages. The Jewish Tanakh (almost identical to the Protestant Old Testament) was originally written in Hebrew, with the exception of some passages of Daniel, Ezra, and Jeremiah which are in Aramaic. The New Testament is widely agreed to have originally been written in Greek, although some scholars hypothesize that certain books (whether completely or partially) may have been written in Aramaic before being translated for widespread dissemination. One very famous example of this is the opening to the Gospel of John, which is argued to be, perhaps, a Greek translation of an Aramaic hymn.

Approaches

A variety of approaches to translation have been used, including Formal equivalence (similar to literal translation, Dynamic equivalence, Meaning-Based Translation, Idiomatic translation, and . A great deal of debate occurs over which approach most accurately communicates the message of the biblical languages source texts into target languages. Despite these, however, many who study the Bible intellectually or devotionally find that selecting more than one translation approach is useful in interpreting and applying what they read. For example, a very literal translation may be useful for individual word or topical study, while a paraphrase may be employed for grasping initial meaning of a passage.

History

Antiquity

Some of the first translations of the Jewish Torah began during the first exile in Babylonia, when Aramaic became the lingua franca of the Jews. With most people speaking only Aramaic and not understanding Hebrew, the Targums were created to allow the common person to understand the Torah as it was read in ancient synagogues. The most well-known movement to translate books of the Bible appeared in the 3rd century BCE. Most of the Tanakh then existed in Hebrew, but many had gathered in Egypt, where Alexander the Great had founded the city that bears his name. At one time a third of the population of the city was Jewish. However, no major Greek translation was sought (as most Jews continued to speak Aramaic to each other) until Ptolemy II Philadelphus hired a large group of Jews (between 15 and 70 according to different sources) who had a fluent capability in both Koine Greek and Hebrew. These people produced the translation now known as the Septuagint.

Origen's Hexapla placed side by side six versions of the Old Testament, including the 2nd century Greek translations of Aquila of Sinope and Symmachus the Ebionite. The canonical Christian Bible was compiled in AD 325 at the Council of Nicaea, and Jerome's Vulgate Latin translation dates to between AD 382 and 420. Latin translations predating Jerome are collectively known as Vetus Latina texts. Jerome began by revising the earlier Latin translations, but ended by going back to the original Greek, bypassing all translations, and going back to the original Hebrew wherever he could instead of the Septuagint. The New Testament was translated into Gothic in the 4th century by Ulfilas. In the 5th century, Saint Mesrob translated the bible into Armenian. Also to dating the same period are the Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic and Georgian translations.

Middle Ages

During the Middle Ages, translation particularly of the Old Testament was discouraged. Nevertheless, there are some fragmentary Old English Bible translations, notably a lost translation of the Gospel of John into Old English by the Venerable Bede, which he is said to have prepared shortly before his death around the year 735. An Old High German version of the gospel of Matthew dates to 748. Charlemagne in ca. 800 charged Alcuin with a revision of the Latin Vulgate. The translation into Old Church Slavonic dates to the late 9th century.

Alfred the Great had a number of passages of the Bible circulated in the vernacular in around 900. These included passages from the Ten Commandments and the Pentateuch, which he prefixed to a code of laws he promulgated around this time. In approximately 990, a full and freestanding version of the four Gospels in idiomatic Old English appeared, in the West Saxon dialect; these are known as the Wessex Gospels.

Pope Innocent III in 1199 banned private readings of the Bible as a reaction to the Cathar and Waldensian heresies. The synods of Toulouse and Tarragona (1234) outlawed possession of Bible translations.

The most notable Middle English Bible translation, Wyclif's Bible (1383), based on the Vulgate, was banned by the Oxford Synod in 1408. A Hungarian Hussite Bible appeared in the mid 15th century, and in 1478, a Spanish translation in the dialect of Valencia.

Reformation and Early Modern period

Tyndale's Bible (1526) met with heavy sanctions, and William Tyndale was jailed in 1535 for translating the Old Testament. The Froschauer Bible of 1531 and the Luther Bible of 1534 (both appearing in portions throughout the 1520s) were an important part of the Reformation. The 1530 Catholic translation of Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples even predates the completion of these Protestant translations.

The missionary activity of the Jesuit order led to a large number of 17th century translation into languages of the New World.

Modern translation efforts

The Bible continues to be the most translated book in the world. As of 2004, at least one book of the bible has been translated into 2,377 of the approximately 6,900 languages listed by SIL, including 665 languages in Africa, followed by 585 in Asia, 414 in Oceania, 404 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 209 in Europe, and 75 in North America. The United Bible Societies are presently assisting in Bible translation projects in some 600 languages. The Bible is available in whole or in part to some 98 percent of the world's population in a language in which they are fluent.

List of translations

This list gives information about Bible translations in various languages, in alphabetical order by language. At the end of some of the sections you will find tables comparing the same verses in various translations.

Afrikaans Translation

The Bible was translated into Afrikaans in 1933, revised in 1953 by the Bybelgenootskap van Suid Afrika, a South African bible society.

Gen 1:1-3 in Afrikaans

Afrikaans translation

Gen. 1:1-3

Old Testament

In die begin het God die hemel en die aarde geskape. En die aarde was woes en leeg, en duisternis was op die wêreldvloed, en die Gees van God het gesweef op die waters. En God het gesê: Laat daar lig wees! En daar was lig.

Chinese Translation

The first Chinese Catholic Bible translation was started by a young Franciscan friar named Gabriele Allegra, he began translating the Old Testament from the original Hebrew and Aramaic languages in 1935. 10 years later he recruited Frs Solanus Lee OFM, Antonius Lee OFM, Frs Bernardinus Lee OFM and Ludovicus Liu OFM in Beijing. However due to the Chinese civil war in 1948, the friars were forced to move the Studium Biblicum in Hong Kong. After 20 years efforts, the first Old Testament was published in 1954. In 1968 the New and Old Testaments were published in a single volume.

Croatian

The first complete translation was Jesuit Kasić's manuscript. The work was done from 1622 to 1637, but remained unpublished until 2000. It was in 1831 that the first published Croatian Bible appeared, translated by a Franciscan Matija Petar Katančić. After a few other versions, the most widely accepted and praised is modern language translation from 1968, the so called "Zagreb Bible", which is partially based on the Jerusalem Bible.

Czech Translation

The first translation of the whole Bible into Czech, based on the Latin Vulgate, was done in 1360. The Bible is called the "Bible of Dresden". This manuscript was lost during World War I. Many other translations followed this Bible of Dresden, and from the linguistic point of view they can be divided in four different redactions. The last one was finally printed.

The first printed Czech New Testament is the "New Testament of Dlabač", printed in 1487. The first printed complete Bible is the "Bible of Prague" from 1488. Another Czech Bible printed before the year 1501 is the "Bible of Kutná Hora" (printed in 1489).

All these texts were translated from the Vulgate.

The first translation from the original languages into Czech language was the Bible of Kralice, first published in years 1579 – 1593. The translation was done by the Unity of the Brethren. The third edition from 1613 is considered classical and is one of the most used Czech Bible translations.

Dutch Translation

The first translation into Dutch directly from Greek and Hebrew sources was the Statenvertaling. It was ordered by the States-General at the Synod of Dordrecht in 1618/19, and first published in 1637. It soon became the generally accepted translation for Reformed churches in the Netherlands and remained so well into the 20th century. It was supplanted to a large extent in 1951 by the NBG (Nederlands Bijbelgenootschap) translation, which still uses relatively old-fashioned language.

Modern language translations are Groot Nieuws Bijbel, Het Boek, the Roman Catholic Willibrordvertaling. In 2004, the NBV (Nieuwe Bijbelvertaling) translation appeared, which was produced by an ecumenical translation team, and is intended as an all-purpose translation for pulpit and home use; however, there has been much criticism on its accuracy.

Around the same time, there has also been much work on very literal, idiolect translations, such as the Naarden translation of 2004, Albert Koster's translation of the Old Testament, a work in progress since 1991, and the Torah translation of the Societas Hebraica Amstelodamensis.

English Translation

Esperanto

The initiator of Esperanto, L. L. Zamenhof translated the entire Old Testament into Esperanto. A monograph by D. B. Gregor, La Esperanta traduko de la Malnova Testamento, compares Zamenhof's translation in some detail with a wide variety of major versions in other languages. A committee, consisting primarily of British clergy and scholars, was formed to translate the New Testament and review Zamenhof's translation for eventual publication by the British and Foreign Bible Society. The New Testament was published in 1910. A translation of the entire Bible, often referred to in Esperanto as the "Londona Biblio", was published in 1926. The most recent printing of the "Londona Biblio", issued in 2003, includes the Berveling translation of the Roman Catholic Deuterocanonical Books (see next paragraph).

An Esperanto organization devoted to Biblical and Oriental Studies, the Internacia Asocio de Bibliistoj kaj Orientalistoj, beginning in the 1960s, attempted to organize the translation of a new, ecumenical Esperanto Bible version, however, this project eventually lapsed, with only Gerrit Berveling's translation of Numbers published (Nombroj, 1999) published. Dr. Berveling (a Dutch Free Church theologian and classical linguist) has, however, translated most of a new version of the New Testament, eschewing the syntactically overliteral tendencies of the B&FBS version, which is perhaps most akin among English versions to the Revised Version of 1881. His gospels have been published as La bona mesaĝo de Jesuo: laŭ X [X = Mateo, Marko, Luko, Johano, all 1992], and the first volume of his projected New Testament has appeared as Leteroj de Paŭlo kaj lia skolo (2004). He has also published a three-volume edition of the Deuterocanonical Books (La duakanonaj libroj), the first two of which (those included in the Roman Catholic Canon) are incorporated in the latest printing of the Londona Biblio.

There have also been other translations of specific books of the Bible and of shorter portions.

The Bible in Esperanto

Brita kaj Alilanda Biblia Societo

Genezo 1:1-3

En la komenco kreis Dio la ĉielon kaj la teron. Kaj la tero estis senforma kaj dezerta, kaj mallumo estis super la abismo; kaj la spirito de Dio ŝvebis super la akvo. Kaj Dio diris: Estu lumo; kaj farighis lumo.

Johano 3:16

Ĉar Dio tiel amis la mondon, ke Li donis Sian solenaskitan Filon, por ke ĉiu, kiu fidas al li, ne pereu, sed havu eternan vivon.

Finnish Translation

The first Finnish translation of the New Testament was Mikael Agricola's Se Wsi Testamenti Somexi (The New Testament in Finnish), which was translated from Greek originals into Finnish 1548. Agricola is today considered the father of the Finnish written language.

The first translation of the whole Bible was the so-called Vanha kirkkoraamattu (Old Church Bible), titled Biblia, Se on: Coco Pyhä Ramattu Suomexi. This edition was translated by committee led by Bishop Erik Rothovius 1638-1641, and published 1642. It was revised 1683-1685 (Florinus).

As the Finnish written and spoken language evolved during the centuries and literacy became commonplace also amongst the laypeople, need for a new edition arose. The so-called Biiblia or Vuoden 1776 raamattu (Year 1776 Bible) was published in 1776. It was the first edition meant not only to ecclestical but also to domestic use, and first written in Modern Finnish. It was revised 1859. The 1776 Bible is the version in use by certain sects even today.

Again a new translation was needed in the early 20th century, and a committee for translation was set 1911. It had its work ready 1933. Full edition of Bible was published in 1938. This edition is often referred as Vuoden 1938 kirkkoraamattu (year 1938 Church Bible). It was translated by the Finnish Lutheran Church, and intended to Lutheran use. As the translationary principle was "one source language word - one Finnish word", its text is very archaizing, and it uses dialectal terms obsolete even during the era. The 1938 edition consisted of Old Testament, deuterocanonicals and New Testament.

The latest official Finnish translation dates to 1992, the so-called Uusi kirkkoraamattu (New Church Bible). It is the first Finnish ecumenical edition; the translation committee consisted not only of the representants of the Finnish Lutheran Church, but also of academics and representants of Finnish Orthodox Church and Finnish Catholic Church, and is intended to use of all Christian denominations. the principle of 1992 edition is contextual translation; instead of verbatim translation, the contextes have been attempted to be translated as accurately as possible. The initial edition consisted of only New and Old Testament: the translation of the Old Testament deuterocanonicals were finished only 2004.

Of the non-official Finnish translations the most important is Uuden Maailman käännös (New World Translation) used by Jehovah's Witnesses. The principle in translation of this edition has been same as on 1938 edition: as verbatim translation as possible. Unfortunately the translation of the "Uuden Maailman käännös" has been done from English instead of original Aramaic and Greek, making the edition somewhat inaccurate.

Johanneksen evankeliumi 3:16

Finnish translations

Johannes 3:16

1776

Sillä niin on Jumala maailmaa rakastanut, että hän antoi ainoan Poikansa, että jokainen, joka uskoo hänen päällensä, ei pidä hukkuman, mutta ijankaikkisen elämän saaman.

1938

Sillä niin on Jumala maailmaa rakastanut, että hän antoi ainokaisen Poikansa, ettei yksikään, joka häneen uskoo, hukkuisi, vaan hänellä olisi iankaikkinen elämä.

1992

Jumala on rakastanut maailmaa niin paljon, että antoi ainoan Poikansa, jottei yksikään, joka häneen uskoo, joutuisi kadotukseen, vaan saisi iankaikkisen elämän.

French Translation

The first printed translation of the Bible into the French language was the work of Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples in 1530 in Antwerp. This was substantially revised and improved in 1535 by Pierre Robert Olivétan. This bible, in turn, became the basis of the first French Roman Catholic bible, published at Leuven in 1550, the work of Nicholas de Leuze and François de Larben. Finally, the Port-Royal version, prepared by Antoine Lemaistre and his brother Louis Isaac Lemaistre, finished in 1695, achieved broad acceptance among both Roman Catholics and Protestants. Jean-Frédéric Ostervald's version (1724) also enjoyed widespread popularity.

Many Francophone Protestants now use the Louis Segond version, which was finished in 1880, and revised substantially between 1975 and 1978. The Revised Louis Segond Bible is published by the American Bible Society. It is a word-for-word translation.

Another modern French Bible is the Bible du Semeur finished in 2000. This is a more thought-for-thought translation than Segond's, and it uses more contemporary language. It is published by the International Bible Society.

Among Roman Catholics, the most notable contemporary French translation is La Bible de Jérusalem, available in English as The Jerusalem Bible, which appeared first in French in 1954 and was revised in 1973. Its copious but concise footnotes and apparatus have won respect among both Protestant and Catholic readers. This translation has served as the basis for versions in many other languages besides French.

The chief Jewish version of the Hebrew Scriptures in French is La Bible du rabbinat français, which was finished in 1906 and was revised in 1966.

German Translation

The most important and influential of translations of the Bible into German is the Luther Bible. The influence that Martin Luther's translation had on the development of the German language is often compared to influence the KJV had on English. It is currently used in a revised version from 1986.

Another translation is the Catholic Einheitsübersetzung ("unified" or "unity translation"), so called because it was the first common translation used for all Catholic German-speaking dioceses. The text of the New Testament and the Psalms of the Einheitsübersetzung was agreed on by a committee of Roman Catholic and Protestant scholars, and therefore was intended to be used by both Roman Catholics and Protestants especially for ecumenical services, while the remainder of the Old Testament follows a Roman Catholic tradition. However, the Protestant Church of Germany refused to continue the cooperation for the current revision of the Einheitsübersetzung.

Johannes 3:16

German Translations

Johannes 3:16

Luther

Also hat Gott die Welt geliebt, daß er seinen eingeborenen Sohn gab, auf daß alle, die an ihn glauben, nicht verloren werden, sondern das ewige Leben haben.

Einheitsübersetzung

Denn Gott hat die Welt so sehr geliebt, daß er seinen einzigen Sohn hingab, damit jeder, der an ihn glaubt, nicht zugrunde geht, sondern das ewige Leben hat.

Other well known German language Bible versions are: Zürcher Bibel, Elberfelder, Schlachter, Buber-Rosenzweig (OT only), Pattloch, Herder, Hoffnung für Alle, Die Gute Nachricht.

Gothic

The only translation of the Bible into the extinct Gothic language was made by the bishop Ulfilas and is preserved in one hand-written copy, known as the Codex Argenteus.

Greek Translation (Modern)

In 1901, Alexandros Pallis translated the Gospels in Modern Greek. The publishing of the translation in a newspaper caused riots in Athens, known as Evangelika (Ευαγγελικά).

Gullah

There has been a translation of Bible into Gullah, a creole language spoken by residents of the Sea Islands. The effort began in 1979 with a team of Gullah speakers from the Penn Center with the assistance of Pat and Claude Sharpe, translation consultants for Wycliffe Bible Translators. Pat Sharpe died in 2002, and that person was replaced by David and Lynn Frank. The Gospels of Luke and John were released in 1995 and 2003, respectively. The New Testament was released in 2005.

John 3:16 in Gullah

Translation

John 3:16

De Nyew Testament

Cause God lobe all de people een de wol so much dat e gii we e onliest Son. God sen we um so dat ebrybody wa bleebe on um ain gwine ded. Dey gwine libe fa true faeba mo.

Hawaiian

A Hawaiian translation was done by New England Christian missionaries and the Reverend Hiram Bingham in the early 1800's. The Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) were translated in 1828. The rest of the New Testament was translated in 1832. The Old Testament was translated in 1839. The translation was revised in 1868. A new translation of the New Testament in Hawaiian Pidgin, titled Da Jesus Book, was published in 2000 by Wycliffe Bible Translators.

Reference

Most of the information in this section comes from Jacquelyn Sapiie, Supervisor of Library Services at the American Bible Society on January 14, 2004.

Hungarian Translation

The first significant Bible translations into Hungarian are as follows:

  • Hussite Bible (probably 1436–1439, only fragments remained)
  • New Testament (1541, János Sylvester): the first full New Testament in Hungarian
  • Gáspár Károlyi's translation (also known as Vizsolyi Biblia and its translator as Károli, 1590, Protestant): the first complete version in Hungarian, which gained wide popularity and is occasionally used even today as the "classic" translation (similarly to the KJV in English)
    • Revised last time in 2003
  • György Káldi's translation (1626, the first full Catholic version)
    • Revised in 1835, 1851, 1865, 1934, 1973, and 1997

John 3:16 in Hungarian

Hungarian translations

János 3,16

Károli's translation

Mert úgy szerette Isten e világot, hogy az ő egyszülött Fiát adta, hogy valaki hiszen ő benne, el ne vesszen, hanem örök élete legyen.

Magyar Bibliatársulat új fordítású Bibliája
New translation Bible of the Hungarian Bible Society (Protestant)

Mert úgy szerette Isten a világot, hogy egyszülött Fiát adta, hogy aki hisz őbenne, el ne vesszen, hanem örök élete legyen.

Szent István Társulati Biblia
Saint Stephen Society Bible (Catholic)

Mert úgy szerette Isten a világot, hogy egyszülött Fiát adta oda, hogy aki hisz benne, az el ne vesszen, hanem örökké éljen.

Szent Jeromos Bibliatársulat
Saint Jerome Bible Society (Catholic, based on Káldi's translation and the Nova Vulgata)

Mert úgy szerette Isten a világot, hogy egyszülött Fiát adta, hogy mindaz, aki őbenne hisz, el ne vesszen, hanem örök élete legyen.

Icelandic Translation

The New Testament was the first book printed in Icelandic. It was translated by Oddur Gottskálksson (whose father was Norwegian) and published in 1540. 44 years later the whole Bible was printed in Icelandic thanks to Guðbrandur Þorláksson, a Protestant bishop at Hólar. The current publisher of the Icelandic Bible is Hið íslenska Biblíufélag (The Icelandic Bible Society).

An example from the Icelandic Bible

Translation

John 3:16

Hið ísl. Biblíufélag, 1981

Því svo elskaði Guð heiminn, að hann gaf son sinn eingetinn, til þess að hver sem á hann trúir glatist ekki, heldur hafi eilíft líf.

Italian Translation

The first printed translation of the Bible into Italian was the Malermi Bible in 1471.

Jèrriais

The Bible has not yet been translated into Jèrriais, but several Biblical passages have been translated.

John 3:16 in Jèrriais

Jèrriais Translation

Jean 3:16

Lé Nouvieau Testament

Car Dgieu aimait tant l'monde qu'i' donnit san seul Fis, à seule fîn qu'touos les cheins tchi craient en li n'péthissent pon, mais qu'il aient la vie êtèrnelle.

Klingon

Parts of the Bible have been translated into Klingon language - the artificial language spoken by Klingons in the fictional Star Trek universe.

John 3:16: toH qo' muSHa'pu'qu'mo' JoH'a', wa' puqloDDaj nobpu' ghaH 'ej ghaHbaq Harchugh vay', vaj not Hegh ghaH, 'ach yIn jub ghajbeH ghaH.

Latin

There were a number of piecework translations into Latin during the period of the early Church. Collectively, these versions are known as the Vetus Latina. In the Old Testament, they follow the Greek Septuagint closely, it being their usual source, and reproduce its variations from the Hebrew Masoretic Text. They were never rendered independently from the Hebrew or Greek; they vary widely in readability and quality, and contain many solecisms in idiom, some by the translators themselves, others from literally translating Greek language idioms into Latin.

All of these translations were made obsolete by St. Jerome's Vulgate version of the Bible. Jerome knew Hebrew, and revised and unified the Latin Bibles of the time to bring them into conformity with the Hebrew as he understood it. The liturgical Psalms, however, are often taken from the older Latin bibles.

As discussed in the Vulgate article, there are several different versions of the Vulgate: the Clementine Vulgate, the Stuggart Vulgate, the Nova Vulgata. These represent various attempts to either revise or modernise the Vulgate, or to recover Jerome's original text.

In the Protestant Reformation, Theodore Beza produced a new Latin version of the Old Testament, the Apocrypha and the New Testament. Demand for a Latin Bible among Protestants declined steadily, and Beza's translation never achieved wide circulation. However, Beza's Latin translation, with its many exegetical margin notes, influenced the translation of the famous Geneva Bible.

Secundum Ioannem 3:16 Latine

Latin Translation

John 3:16

Vulgate

Sic enim dilexit Deus mundum, ut Filium suum unigenitum daret, ut omnis qui credit in eum non pereat, sed habeat vitam æternam.

Theodore Beza

Ita enim Deus dilexit mundum, ut Filium suum unigenitum illum dederit, ut quisquis credit in eum, non pereat, sed habeat vitam æternam.

Manx

The Bible was translated into the Manx language, a dialect of Gaelic, by a committee of clergy from the Isle of Man. The New Testament appeared in 1767, and the complete Bible in 1772.

The Bible in Manx Gaelic

British Bible Society text, 1819

Genesis 1:1-3

Ayns y toshiaght chroo Jee niau as thalloo. As va'n thalloo gyn cummey, as feayn; as va dorraghys er eaghtyr y diunid: as ren spyrryd Yee gleashagh er eaghtyr ny ushtaghyn. As dooyrt Jee, Lhig da soilshey 've ayn; as va soilshey ayn.

Ean 3:16

Son lheid y ghraih shen hug Jee d'an theihll, dy dug eh e ynyrcan Vac v'er ny gheddyn, nagh jinnagh quoi-erbee chredjagh aynsyn cherraghtyn, agh yn vea ta dy bragh farraghtyn y chosney.

Polari

The King James Bible has been translated, or adapted, into the gay slang Polari by the Manchester branch of the Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence. The opening verses of Genesis read like this:

1:1 In the beginning Gloria created the heaven and the earth. 2 And the earth was nanti form, and void; and munge was upon the eke of the deep. And the nanti lucoddy of Gloria trolled upon the eke of the aquas. 3 And Gloria cackled, Let there be sparkle: and there was sparkle. 4 And Gloria vardad the sparkle, that it was bona: and Gloria medzered the sparkle from the munge. 5 And Gloria screeched the sparkle Day, and the munge he screeched nochy. And the bijou nochy and the morning were the una day.

Polish Translation

An early and influential Polish translation of the Bible was made by the Polish Jesuit, Jakub Wujek (1541-97). This translation shaped the style of Polish Biblical language.

Romanian Translation

The first complete translation to Romanian was done in 1688 (called "Biblia de la Bucureşti") by Radu and Şerban Greceanu with the help of Şerban Cantacuzino and Constantin Brâncoveanu.

Before the Greceanu brothers, have been other partial translation like the Slave-Roman Gospel (1551), Coresi's Gospel (1561), The Braşov Psalm Book (1570), Palia from Orăştie (1582), The New Testament of Alba Iulia (1648) and others.

Two main translations are currently used in Romanian. The Orthodox church uses the "Biblia Sinodală" (Bible of the Holy Synod) version, the standard Romanian Orthodox Bible translation, published with the blessings of Patriarch Teoctist, whereas Protestant denominations mainly use the more widespread translation of Dumitru Cornilescu, first published in 1928. In 1989 "Biblia Cornilescu Revizuită" (Revised Cornilescu Version) appeared; it tried to get the existing translation closer to the original manuscripts, in a form grammatically corrected and adapted according to the evolution of the modern Romanian language.

John 3:16 in Romanian

Romanian translations

Ioan 3:16

Cornilescu (reprint with 1928 text)

Fiindcă atît de mult a iubit Dumnezeu lumea, că a dat pe singurul Lui Fiu, pentruca oricine crede în El, să nu piară, ci să aibă viaţă vecinică.

Biblia Cornilescu Revizuită (1990 reprint of the 1989 edition)

Fiindcă atît de mult a iubit Dumnezeu lumea, că a dat pe singurul Său Fiu, pentru ca oricine crede în El să nu piară, ci să aibă viaţă veşnică.

Biblia Sinodală (as published on Biblia Ortodoxă Online)

Căci Dumnezeu aşa a iubit lumea, încât pe Fiul Său Cel Unul-Născut L-a dat ca oricine crede în El să nu piară, ci să aibă viaţă veşnică.

Traducerea lumii noi (Romanian edition of the New World Translation, 2000)

Fiindcă atât de mult a iubit Dumnezeu lumea, încât l-a dat pe Fiul său unic-născut, pentru ca oricine exercită credinţă în el să nu fie distrus, ci să aibă viaţă veşnică.

Serbian

Atanasije Stojković translated the New Testament to Serbian in 1830. More published translation by Vuk Karadžić was next (1847), completed by the Old Testament translation by Đuro Daničić (1865).

More recent translations are the following:

  • Lujo Bakotić 1933, complete Bible,
  • Dimitrije Stefanović 1934, NT,
  • Emilijan Čarnić 1973, NT,
  • the Synod with the Bible Society 1984, complete Bible
  • Aleksandar Birviš 1987, four Gospels.
Translation John 1:1-1:5
Aleksandar Birviš 1987

1) У почетку беше он, Реч,
и Реч беше код Бога
и Он, Реч, беше Бог.
2) Он, Реч, беше у почетку код Бога.
3) Дејством његовим све је постало
и без њега ништа није постало
што је постало.
4) У њему је био живот
и живот је био светлост људима.
5) И светлост светли у тами
и тама је не обузе.

Spanish Translation

The first complete translation from the originals into Spanish was published in 1569 (called "Biblia del Oso") by Casiodoro de Reina.

  • Biblia Alfonsina, 1280.
  • Biblia del Duque de Alba, 1430.
  • Antiguo Testamento del rabino Salomón, 1420.
  • Antiguo Testamento de traductor anónimo, 1420.
  • Nuevo Testamento de Francisco de Enzinas, 1543.
  • Nuevo Testamento de Juan Pérez de Pineda, 1556.
  • Reina o "Biblia del Oso" (RV), 1569, reviewed in 1602 by Cipriano de Valera.
  • Biblia del padre Scío de San Miguel, 1793.
  • Versión Moderna, 1893.
  • Biblia de Petisco y Torres Amat, 1825.
  • Nuevo Testamento versión hispanoamericana, 1916.
  • Biblia Nácar-Colunga, 1944.
  • Biblia Bóver-Cantera, 1947.
  • Nuevo Testamento de monseñor Straubinger, 1948.
  • Nuevo Testamento traducción del Nuevo Mundo, 1963. Translation from English.
  • Biblia de Jerusalén, 1966.
  • Biblia traducción del Nuevo Mundo, 1967. Translation from English.
  • Biblia de Editorial Labor, 1968.
  • Biblia edición pastoral para Latinoamérica, 1972.
  • La Biblia de editorial Herder, 1975.
  • Nueva Biblia Española, 1976.
  • Biblia Interconfesional, 1978.
  • Dios Habla Hoy o Versión Popular (DHH), 1979.
  • La Biblia al Día, 1979.
  • Biblia el libro del pueblo de Dios, 1980.
  • Nuevo Testamento de la Universidad de Navarra, 1983.
  • Biblia de las Américas (BLA), 1986.
  • Biblia, versión revisada por un equipo de traductores dirigido por Evaristo Martín Nieto. 1989.
  • Biblia Casa de la Biblia, 1992.
  • Biblia del Peregrino, 1993.
  • Nuevo Testamento versión Recobro, 1994.
  • Nueva Versión Internacional (NVI), 1999.
  • Nuevo Testamento traducción de Pedro Ortiz, 2000.
  • Nuevo Testamento la Palabra de Dios para Todos (PDT), 2000.
  • Biblia traducción en lenguaje actual (TLA), 2003.
  • Biblia la Palabra de Dios para Todos (PDT), 2005.
John 3:16 in Spanish

Translation

Juan 3:16

La Palabra de Dios para Todos (PDT Version) 2005

Dios amó tanto al mundo que dio a su Hijo único para que todo el que crea en él no se pierda, sino que tenga vida eterna.

Reina-Valera 1960

Porque de tal manera amó Dios al mundo, que ha dado a su Hijo unigénito, para que todo aquel que en él cree, no se pierda, mas tenga vida eterna.

Nueva Versión Internacional

Porque tanto amó Dios al mundo, que dio a su Hijo unigénito, para que todo el que cree en él no se pierda, sino que tenga vida eterna.

Dios Habla Hoy

Pues Dios amó tanto al mundo, que dio a su Hijo único, para que todo aquel que cree en él no muera, sino que tenga vida eterna.

La Biblia de las Américas

Porque de tal manera amó Dios al mundo, que dio a su Hijo unigénito, para que todo aquel que cree en Él, no se pierda, mas tenga vida eterna.

Slavonic

In 862, a pair of monks named Saints Cyril and Methodius were commissioned by Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople, to take the Gospel to Great Moravia. They translated the Bible and many liturgical service books into Slavonic, which was spoken in various dialects throughout much of Eastern Europe. Their translation was later used to evangelize Bulgaria and Kievan Rus in the tenth century. As there was no written form of Slavonic prior to their translation, they created what became known as the Glagolitic alphabet, loosely based on Greek, and their disciples derived from it the Cyrillic alphabet, which is used by Russian and other East European languages. The Slavonic used in their translation is now known as Old Church Slavonic and its later version as the Church Slavonic still used in liturgical services in Russian Orthodox and several other Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Rite Catholic churches.

Slovene Translation

Both Old and New Testaments were first translated to Slovene by Protestant writer and theologian Jurij Dalmatin. The translation was printed in Wittenberg, Germany in 1584 and was smuggled back to Slovenia hidden in barrels so that Catholic authorities could not discover it. The Slovenes thus became the 12th nation in the world with a complete Bible in their language, overtaking many much larger European nations. The Bible translation was the major achievement of Slovene Protestant literature.

Swahili Translation

The first translation of parts of the Bible into Swahili was accomplished by 1868, with a complete New Testament translation following in 1879 and a translation of the whole Bible in 1890. Since that time, there have been several translations into different dialects of Swahili as spoken in different regions of East Africa; these include the Union translation published by the Bible Society of Tanzania in 1950 and the Swahili Common Language version.

John 3:16 in Swahili Translations

Translation

Yohana 3:16

Union Translation

Kwa maana jinsi hii Mungu aliupenda ulimwengu, hata akamtoa Mwanawe pekee, ili kila mtu amwaminiye asipotee, bali awe na uzima wa milele.

Swedish Translation

Several translations to Swedish have been performed over the years. Until the reformation, a Latin Bible was used, but Gustav Vasa who converted Sweden to protestantism ordered the first translation into the Swedish tongue.

Several translations has been made since then, including:

  • Gustav Vasas bibel - the original ordered by Gustav Vasa
  • Karl XIIs bibel - ordered by Charles XII of Sweden
  • Normalupplagan
  • Helge Åkessons översättning
  • 1917 års bibelöversättning - used in official churches until 2000
  • Nya Världens bibelöversättning - by Jehovah's Witnesses
  • David Hedegårds översättning - includes only the New Testament
  • Bo Giertz översättning - includes only the New Testament
  • Svenska folkbibeln
  • Bibel 2000 - the latest official translation, including the Apocrypha of the Old Testament

Translation

Första Mosebok 1:1-1:4

1917 translation

I begynnelsen skapade Gud himmel och jord.
Och jorden var öde och tom, och mörker var över djupet, och Guds Ande svävade över vattnet.
Och Gud sade: "Varde ljus"; och det vart ljus.<br>Och Gud såg att ljuset var gott; och Gud skilde ljuset från mörkret.

Bibel 2000

I begynnelsen skapade Gud himmel och jord.
Jorden var öde och tom, djupet täcktes av mörker och en gudsvind svepte fram över vattnet.
Gud sade: ”Ljus, bli till!” Och ljuset blev till.
Gud såg att ljuset var gott, och han skilde ljuset från mörkret.

Welsh Translation

The first translation of the Bible into Welsh was the New Testament translation of William Salesbury in 1567, closely followed by William Morgan's translation of the whole Bible in 1588. This occupies a similar place in the Welsh language to that of the King James Version in English. A new translation, y Beibl Cymraeg Newydd was published in 1988 and has largely replaced the William Morgan translation, although there is some disagreement as to the accuracy of the translation. Both versions are in very literary Welsh and there is still a need for a translation in a more colloquial register.

A revision of y Beibl Cymraeg Newydd (Revised New Welsh Bible) was released in March 2004.

A Comparison of John 3:16 in Welsh Translations

Translation

Ioan 3:16

Beibl William Morgan, 1588

Canys felly y carodd Duw y byd fel y rhoddodd efe ei unig-anedig Fab, fel na choller pwy bynnag a gredo ynddo ef, ond caffael ohono fywyd tragwyddol.

Y Beibl Cymraeg Newydd, 1988

Do, carodd Duw y byd gymaint nes iddo roi ei unig Fab, er mwyn i bob un sy'n credu ynddo ef beidio â mynd i ddistryw ond cael bywyd tragwyddol.

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